Vitamin B12 is essential for normal energy metabolism of carbohydrates, fat and protein. As a cofactor for methylmalonyl-CoA mutase enzymes, vitamin B12 helps convert odd chain fatty acids and branched chain amino acids into succinyl-CoA, a common citric acid cycle intermediate. Vitamin B12 is also required for nucleic acid (DNA) synthesis, methionine synthesis from cysteine, and normal myelin synthesis in the nervous system. Along with vitamin B6 and folic acid, adequate levels of vitamin B12 are required to maintain normal plasma homocysteine levels. Elevated plasma homocysteinemay be an independent risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease.
As a dietary supplement, adults take 1 tablet daily with meals, or as directed by a healthcare professional.
No adverse effects have been reported.